Archive for July, 2010

Did ‘A’ishah (r) Advocate the Murder of ‘Uthman (r)?

July 28, 2010 Leave a comment

Answered by Shaykh Taha Karaan


Hadrat ‘A’ishah was a severe critic of Hadrat Uthman. How is it that following his murder, she chose to rebel against Imam Ali (as) on the premise that his killers should be apprehended? During her lifetime Hadrat ‘A’ishah was a severe critic of Hadrat Uthman, to the point that she advocated his killing. How is it that following his murder, she chose to rebel against Imam Ali (as) on the premise that his killers should be apprehended? Why did she leave Makkah, portray Hadrat Uthman as a victim and mobilise opposition from Basrah? Was this decision based on her desire to defend Hadrat Uthman or was it motivated by her animosity towards Hadrat Ali (as)? History records that she said the following about Hadrat Uthman “Kill this old fool (Na’thal), for he is unbeliever”, see History of Ibn Athir, v3, p206, Lisan al-Arab, v14, p141, al-Iqd al-Farid, v4, p290 and Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid, v16, pp 220-223


The questioner has assumed as an historical fact the claim drawn from the named sources that Sayyidah ‘A’ishah advocated the killing of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman. He labours under the common misconception that the simple fact that the moment something mentioned is in a history book it is an incontrovertible fact. He fails to understand the need for authentication.

The fact of the matter is that in order for narrated information to be regarded as a valid basis for making claims that affect one’s belief system, or influence the way one views personalities, the information HAS to be authenticated. Leave aside reports of history; even the ahadith of Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam have to be authenticated by rigorous criteria before store can be set by it.

What does authentication entail? Does it amount to providing a mere reference to a source or two such as what the questioner has given? Anyone who regards this as authentication hasn’t got the vaguest idea of what authentication is or what it entails. The questioner and other like him would be well advised to equip himself with some knowledge of the discipline before venturing boldly into making claims that may well affect their destiny in the hereafter.

Coming now to the issue under discussion: The questioner provides the following four references for his claim that history records Sayyidah ‘A’ishah as saying about Sayyiduna Uthman, “Kill this old fool (Na’thal), for he is unbeliever”:

1. History of Ibn Athir, v3, p206
2. Lisan al-Arab, v14, p141,
3. al-Iqd al-Farid, v4, p290
4. Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid, v16, pp 220-223


The book “Lisan al-’Arab” by Ibn Manzur is a not a work on history, but a lexicon of the Arabic language. Does the questioner not see the utter ridiculousness of his endeavour to establish historical truth by quoting a dictionary? His attempt is comparable to quoting scientific material from an anthology of poetry.


Ibn Abil Hadid was an extremist Shi’i whose beliefs would be repugnant even to the “moderate” Shi’ah themselves. His views of the near-divinity of Sayyiduna Ali ibn Abi Talib are reflected in his poetry, some of which is reproduced in the editor’s introduction to his commentary on “Nahj al-Balaghah”. As an extremist Shi’i, his being cited on a matter concerning the Sahabah cannot be free from prejudice, and must therefore be called into question seriously.

If we are going to accept everything the Shi’ah say about the Sahabah, we will eventually end up having to accept that beyond inciting the murder of Uthman, Sayyidah A’ishah was also guilty of adultery, [as recorded by Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Qummi in his Tafsir (vol. 2 p. 377), Hashim al-Bahrani in al-Burhan (vol. 4 p. 358) and Abdullah Shubbar in his Tafsir (p. 338)]; that the sixth of the seven doorways of Hell will be exclusively for her [as stated in Bihar al-Anwar vol. 4 p. 378; and Tafsir al-‘Ayyashi vol. 2 p. 243]; and that she was a hypocrite who, along with the vast bulk of the Sahabah turned apostate openly after the demise of the Nabi sallallahu `alayhi wasallam.


Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih’s book “al-’Iqd al-Farid” is a literary book about which the author states in his introduction, “I have written this book, and I have chosen its rare jewels from amongst select gemstones of literature.” He makes no claim that everything in his book is historically accurate and authentic. Again, the absolute inappropriateness of establishing historical truth from a source as unsuited for this purpose as a literary omnibus seems to escape the notice of the questioner.


The fact that the questioner names this work as the ” History of Ibn Athir” appears to reveal that he himself is unfamiliar with the book, and happens to be citing it from second or third hand sources. For his information, the book’s proper title is “al-Kamil”. Had the questioner been familiar with this book he would have been aware of the fact that this book is directly based upon Ibn Jarir at-Tabari’s work; and had he been familiar with Tabari’s work he would have known that Tabari has recorded the material in his book complete with chains of narrations. He would also have known that Tabari himself, in a disclaimer at the end of his introduction (vol. 1 p. 24) declares that in terms of authenticity the material in his book is only as good as the chains of narration through which it has come down to him.

In light of the above, let us now proceed to evaluate the authenticity of the statement which the questioner has so boldlessly and recklessly (and also – mind you – ignorantly) ascribed to Sayyidah A’ishah.

This statement is to be found on page 226 of the 5th volume of the edition of Tarikh at-Tabari published by Dar al-Fikr, Beirut in 1418/1998. It is recorded by Tabari on the authority of the following chain of narration:

Tabari narrates from ‘Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan al-’Ijli, who narrates from Husayn ibn Nasr al-’Attar, who narrates from his father Nasr ibn Muzahim al-’Attar…

Up to this point the following flaws present itself in the chain:

1. Of Tabari’s immediate source, ‘Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Hasan al-’Ijli, no trace can be found in the biographical works of narrators. He is thus an unknown person.

2. The next person in the chain is Husayn ibn Nasr ibn Muzahim. Of him too, no trace is to be found in the biographical literature ¯ hence another unknown person. The only thing that is known about him is the fact that he is the son of Nasr ibn Muzahim.

3. Nasr ibn Muzahim presents a major problem. He was known in his lifetime as a forger of historical material, and was condemned for it by, amongst others, the hadith expert Abu Khaythamah Zuhayr ibn Harb. His general unreliability as a narrator of historical material is echoed by al-’Uqayli, Abu Hatim ar-Razi, ad-Daraqutni, al-’Ijli, al-Khalili and Ibn ‘Adi. He is described by a number of these experts as a hardcore extremist Shi’i. (See Lisan al-Mizan vol. 7 p. 187) Even a non-muhaddith such as the literary biographer Yaqut al-Hamawi describes him as an extremist Shi’i who stands accused of forgery and is generally unreliable. (Mu’jam al-Udaba vol. 19 p. 225)

As may be expected, Shi’i hadith critics are generally more affable towards Nasr ibn Muzahim. However, even they have located a problem with the historical material which he transmits. The Shi’i hadith critic Abul ‘Abbas an-Najashi, for example, remarks about him that while he himself was a person of righteous conduct, his problem was that he transmitted material on the authority of unreliable sources. (Rijal an-Najashi vol. 2 p. 384) This statement of an-Najashi is corroborated by al-’Allamah al-Hilli in al-Khulasah. (Jami’ ar-Ruwat vol. 2 p. 291)

With this background on Nasr ibn Muzahim, let us now proceed to investigate the sources on whose authority Nasr ibn Muzahim has ascribed this alleged statement to Sayyidah A’ishah.

Nasr produces two separate chains of narrators through which he claims to have received this information. They look as follows:

1. Nasr ibn Muzahim narrates from Sayf ibn ‘Umar, who narrates from Muhammad ibn Nuwayrah and Talhah ibn al-A’lam.

2. Nasr ibn Muzahim narrates from ‘Umar ibn Sa’d, who narrates from Asad ibn ‘Abdullah, who narrates from some learned men whom he met.

The first chain of narration shows glaring defects. Sayf ibn ‘Umar is that historian whose total unreliability has been a matter of much discussion, especially in Shi’i circles. The contemporary Shi’i scholar, Murtada al-’Askari has written an interesting book in which he has pointed a finger of accusation at this very same Sayf ibn ‘Umar. The charge which he levels against Sayf ibn ‘Umar is that he is responsible for inventing of the personality of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba. Despite the flaws in al-’Askaris’ research (upon which some light has been cast in an article that may be read at) this book has been highly acclaimed in Shi’i circles, and everyone climbed on the bandwagon of labeling Sayf ibn ‘Umar as a shameless liar and forger. But suddenly, when the material which Sayf transmits is not about Ibn Saba, but disparages Sayyidah A’ishah, his unreliability is conveniently forgotten, and an-Najashi! ‘s complaint of Nasr ibn Muzahim narrating from unreliable sources is cast to the wind. Such “objectivity” leaves one in complete amazement.

Furthermore, Sayf ibn ‘Umar’s two sources, Muhammad ibn Nuwayrah and Talhah ibn al-A’lam, are completely unknown entities.

Nasr ibn Muzahim’s second chain of narration suffers once again from the same defect. His immediate source, ‘Umar ibn Sa’d is unknown, as is ‘Umar ibn Sa’d’s source Asad ibn ‘Abdullah. The person or persons from whom Asad ibn ‘Abdullah allegedly received the information are not even named at all.

In summary it may therefore be said that not a single person in the entire chain of narration, from Tabari up the final sources, may be relied upon at all. Is it on the basis of such worthless historical material that the questioner wishes us to believe that Sayyidah A’shah advocated the killing of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman?

If the questioner can bring himself to accept such worthless material, it creates a question in the mind as to why he would do so. It cannot be because of the intrinsic value of the report itself, for it has been adequately demonstrated here that the report has no value at all. The only reason for his acceptance of such narrations will have to be his own sectarian prejudices. He himself will have to answer to Allah for accepting and believing information provided by such worthless and unreliable sources.

As for the rest of us, we abide by the instruction of Allah Most High: “O you who believe, when an evil-doer comes unto you with news, then ascertain the truth, lest you harm people unwittingly, and afterwards regret what you have done.” (49:6)

And since Sayyidah A’ishah was of the Muhajirin, it may be of interest to the questioner to note what attitude Allah has instructed those who come after the Muhajirin and the Ansar to adopt towards them: “And those who come after them, they say: Our Lord, forgive us and [forgive] our brethren who preceded us in faith. And do not put in our hearts rancour towards the Believers. Our Lord, You are Most Kind, Most Merciful.” (59:10)



Difference Between Da’wah And Islaah

July 25, 2010 Leave a comment
Difference Between Da’wah And Islaah
Usually people use the word ‘Da’wah’ for the act of conveying the message of Islam, without differentiating whether the person being addressed is a Muslim or a non-Muslim. Many consider ‘Da’wah’ and ‘Islaah’ to be one and the same activity. The appropriate word used for inviting a non-Muslim to Islam is ‘Da’wah’ and for providing correct and additional knowledge of Islam to a Muslim is ‘Islaah’.
Definition of ‘Da’wah’:

‘Da’wah’ means an invitation. In the Islamic context it means an invitation to Islam. Thus Da’wah means conveying the message of Islam to non-Muslims and inviting them to Islam.

Definition of ‘Islaah’:

‘Islaah’ means to improve, correct, rectify or repair. In Islamic terminology, ‘Islaah’ means correcting a Muslim or providing more knowledge of Islam to a Muslim.


Categories: General

The Wahhabi Movement: History and Beliefs

July 23, 2010 Leave a comment
Name riyaz  –
Title The Wahhabi Movement: History and Beliefs
Question Dear Scholar, Assalamu alaikum, Could you give some explnation on the wahabi sect? As some people claim that most of the saudis are wahabis.
Date 4/13/2005
Mufti IOL  Shari`ah  Researchers

Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear questioner, we would like to thank you for the great confidence you place in us, and we implore Allah Almighty to help us serve His cause and render our work for His Sake. May Allah reward you abundantly for your interest in knowing the teachings of your religion, Islam!

In the first place, we’d like to state that Imam Muhammad Ibn `Abdul-Wahhab is the founder of the Wahhabi Movement. The Wahabis are part of Ahl-As-Sunnah wal Jama`ah. Concerning its historical background, Wahhabism is a faith-based, political and reformist movement attributed to its founder, Imam Muhammad ibn `Abdul-Wahhab.

Wahhabism is one of reformation movements that emerged during the time that the Muslim world at large suffered from a great intellectual setback.

So it was originally established by its founder to focus mainly on purging Islam of its decadence, alien ideas that mean nothing more than polytheism, in addition to reviving the fervor of days gone by. That is, the main goal of the movement is to call all Muslims back to pure Tawhid (Monotheism) and to stick to the teachings of the Qur’an, and the Prophetic Tradition.

Reviving the ideas of the two notable Islamic figures: Sheikh Ibn Taimiyah and his disciple, Ibn al-Qayyim, as well as upholding the juristic opinions of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, both in creedal and juristic matters, are also part of the goals of this group.

Here, we’d like to cite for you the fatwa we issued in this regard:

“Its foundation and prominent members:

1- Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab Al-Mashrafi At-Tamimi An-Najdi (1115-1206 AH /1703-1791 CE). He was born in a town called `Uyaynah to the north of Riyadh.

He studied Hanbali Jurisprudence, tafsir (Qur’anic Interpretation) and Hadith from his learned father; in fact, he memorized the Qur’an by the age of ten.

He went to Makkah to perform Pilgrimage, then to Madinah to obtain more knowledge about Islam. There he met Sheikh Muhammad Hayat As-Sandi (who died in the year 1165 AH), the author of the book Al Hashiyah `Ala Sahih Al-Bukhari. He was greatly influenced by this renowned scholar.

He went to Iraq in the year 1136 AH/ 1724 CE, but was forced to leave Basrah for Ahsa’, then he went to Huraymila’, a village of Najd, because his father had moved there and stayed with him.

After propagating (pure) monotheism in Huraymila’, he returned back to `Uyaynah, and explained his reformist movement to its governor, `Uthman ibn Mu`ammar. The latter, upon responding to his call, assisted him in demolishing all the graves and bringing down the dome over the grave of Zayd ibn Al-Khattab. Together, they carried out the prescribed punishment for adultery on a woman who had confessed to it.

Then Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab went to Dar`iyyah, a place taken by the Su`ud dynasty as its administrative base.

2- Prince Muhammad ibn Su`ud

Muhammad bin `Abdul Wahhab made an alliance with Imam Muhammad ibn Su`ud to spread this thought which now dominates the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and forms the ideological and philosophical basis of the kingdom.

Beliefs and Principles:

1. Although the founder belonged to the Hanbali School of Jurisprudence, he used to sidestep it whenever he found evidence that sounded more convincing to him. Hence, the Salafi call does not follow a specific school in respect to its principles but it follows the views of the Hanbali Juristic School in respect to minor issues.

2. This Salafi movement calls for the revival of Ijtihad (personal reasoning) after it has been abandoned since the fall of Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate.

3. It emphasizes the necessity of returning to the teachings of Allah’s Book (the Qur’an) and the Sunnah and not to accept any thing with regard to belief unless it is based on a clear-cut evidence from both these sources (i.e., the Qur’an and Sunnah).

4. It adopts the method of Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah when it comes to understanding a certain evidence and forming a certain ruling thereupon.

5. It also calls for refining the concept of monotheism (Allah’s Oneness) and calls upon Muslims to adopt what the early Muslims would believe in that regard.

6. It propagates the belief in the Divine attributes and names of Allah, by believing in the names and attributes that Allah Almighty has described Himself with and that which the Prophet (peace be upon him) attributed to Him, without thinking that He has a shaped body or how He lives and without giving a certain interpretation to the verses that include attributes of Allah.

7. It also calls for believing that it is Allah Almighty alone that is worthy of worship. Allah Almighty says: “Serve Allah and shun false gods” (An-Nahl: 36)

8. It revives the obligation of jihad.

9. It calls for abolishing the innovations and superstitions spread because of ignorance and lagging behind, such as:

– visiting a certain grave claming that it is the grave of the Prophet’s Companion Dirar ibn Al-Azwar, and asking him to fulfill their requests,

– visiting a specific dome claiming that it belongs to Zayd Ibn Al-Khattab,

– visiting a certain tree they claim to be of Prophet’s Companion Abu Dujanah

10. The sect also believes that tawassul (invoking Allah through an intermediary) is of two kinds: one is desirable, that is, supplicating Allah by virtue of His Glorious Names, and the other is innovative, that is, supplicating Allah Almighty through, for instance, the person of the Prophet (peace be upon him), or through the persons of so-and-so sheikhs or saints and their closeness to Allah Almighty.

11. The movement prevents building tombs and decorating or lightening them and the like.

12. It calls for firmly opposing the extreme views of the Sufis and the innovations they have introduced to the religion of Islam.

13. It prohibits saying anything about Allah Almighty without knowledge. Allah Almighty says: “Say: My Lord forbiddeth only indecencies, such of them as are apparent and such as are within, and sin and wrongful oppression, and that ye associate with Allah that for which no warrant hath been revealed, and that ye tell concerning Allah that which ye know not.” (Al-A’raf: 33)

14. The things about which the Islamic Shari`ah is silent (as to whether they are lawful or not) are not up to people to decide upon, and so, no one is licensed to say that such things are obligatory or unlawful or desirable or undesirable. Allah almighty says: “O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made known unto you, would trouble you…” (Al-Maidah: 101)

15. It believes that giving up a clear evidence with regard to some issue and citing instead a controversial, allegorical one is a method followed by misled people or groups like Ar-Rafidah and the Kharijites. Allah Almighty says: “But those in whose hearts is doubt pursue, forsooth, that which is allegorical seeking (to cause) dissension by seeking to explain it.” (Al `Imran: 7)

16. The Prophet stated that what is lawful is plain and that which is unlawful is plain and between the two of them are doubtful matters. Therefore, no one can claim that every issue can be judged in clear, decisive terms.

17. On shirk (associating partners with Allah or polytheism), Sheikh Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab maintained that it is of three kinds:

a- Major shirk, which relates to the aspects of worship, intention, obedience and showing fidelity to people.

b- Minor shirk, which relates to the act of showing off, pursuant to the Prophet’s words: “Showing-off, even in a minor way, is a form of shirk.”

c- Hidden shirk, in which a believer may fall inadvertently, according to the following Hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him): “Shirk is more hidden in this Ummah (i.e. Muslims) than the crawling of the black ant, on the soundless rock, in the tenebrous night.”

18. The movement is keen to awaken the Ummah intellectually and remove the stains of several decades of ignorance, backwardness, and blind imitation. ”

To Shorten or Complete Prayers While Traveling

July 21, 2010 Leave a comment
Title To Shorten or Complete Prayers While Traveling
Question Dear scholars, As-Salamu `alaykum. I was on a trip and when the Prayer was due I performed it in its shortened form (qasr). Some of my friends did so, while others opted for completing the Prayer, arguing that this is the preferable act. What is the Shari`ah ruling in this regard? And what is the better choice for a traveler: to complete the Prayer or to shorten it? Jazakum Allah khayran.
Date 3/Oct/2004
Mufti A Group of Islamic Researchers

Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear brother in Islam thanks for your question, which emanates from a God-fearing heart, since it shows your commitment to Prayer, the cornerstone of Islam.

As a matter of fact, Muslim scholars are not in agreement on this issue. But the most correct opinion is the view held by the majority of scholars that shortening the Prayer is better for a traveler, since the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and the caliphs used to shorten their Prayers while traveling. This opinion, in addition, spares us the controversy whether shortening the Prayer is obligatory or not. However, a traveler is permitted either to shorten his Prayer or complete it, according to a group of scholars. Other scholars deem completing the Prayer while traveling as reprehensible since the traveler who completes the Prayer does not follow the Sunnah.

This debate is applicable if the traveler prays alone or is led by another traveler. If a traveler is led by a resident, then the preponderant opinion is that he should complete the Prayer.
To elaborate on the subject, we cite the scholars’ arguments in this regard:

In his book Al-Majmu`, Imam An-Nawawi says:

If the travel continues for three days, then the shortening is better. `Umran ibn Husain (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “I performed Hajj with Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him), and he used to pray two rak`ahs. And I traveled with Abu Bakr and he used to pray two rak`ahs until he died. Also, I traveled with `Umar and he used to pray two rak`ahs until he died. I traveled also with `Uthman. He used to perform two rak`ahs for six years, then he performed the whole Prayer in Mina.” Thus, to follow the footsteps of the Prophet is the better choice.
However, the traveler is permitted to complete the Prayer, as `A’ishah reported that she traveled with Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) in Ramadan to perform `Umrah. He did not fast but she did. He shortened the Prayer and she performed the whole Prayer. Then `A’ishah said, “O Messenger of Allah, you did not fast but I did, and you shortened your Prayer and I completed it.” He (peace and blessings be upon him) replied, “You did well, `A’ishah.”

In fact, shortening the Prayer is rukhsah (a legal concession) that can be abandoned, exactly as is the ruling of with wiping over leather socks in ablution.

Imam Ibn Taymiyah says in his Collection of Fatwas:

Some scholars deem completing the Prayer in travel better than shortening it. Others prefer shortening but they see no harm in completing the Prayer. Rather, they consider it the apparent ruling and they say that one should not shorten his Prayer unless he intends to do so. Still others argue that completion is not permissible, and the Sunnah is to shorten the Prayer while traveling. According to them, it is reprehensible for a traveler to complete his Prayer. These scholars hold that shortening the Prayer is a permanent Sunnah for the traveler, while combining the Prayers (jam`) is a temporary legal concession. In fact, this opinion seems to be the closest one to Sunnah.

Shedding more light on the question, the Kuwaiti Encyclopedia of Fiqh states:

The Maliki, Shafi`i, and Hanbali scholars maintain that the original ruling is the completion of the Prayer, and the shortening is a legal concession. They corroborate their argument with the hadith narrated by Imam Muslim to the effect that shortening the Prayer is “an act of charity which Allah has done to you.”

Yet, the prevalent view in the Shafi`i School is that, in case a travel should last three days, shortening the Prayer is better than completion as it conforms to the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), and spares us the controversy introduced by those maintaining the obligation of shortening the Prayer, such as Imam Abu Hanifah. In this context, some cases are exceptional, such as the crew of a ship accompanied by their families in their travels overseas, and one who is in permanent travel with no specific homeland. Such people are recommended to perform the whole Prayer to avoid the controversy introduced by a group of scholars, including Imam Ahmad, who hold that people in such cases should complete their Prayer.

On the other hand, the unpopular view in the Shafi`i School is that completing the Prayer is better in all circumstances, due to the fact that it is the original ruling and the oft-repeated practice. Yet if a travel would not last for three days, then completing the Prayer is deemed better since it is the original ruling.

Hanbalis maintain that shortening is better than completing the Prayer, as the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and the caliphs always shortened the Prayer while traveling. Yet there is no harm in completing the Prayer for those originally allowed to shorten the Prayers.

Hanafis, on their part, have the view that qasr is the original ruling of the Prayer. Prayer was initially composed of only two rak`ahs for both travelers and residents. This is indicated by the hadith that `A’ishah narrated: “The Prayer was prescribed as two rak`ahs, both in journey and at the place of residence. The Prayer while traveling remained as it was (originally prescribed), but an addition was made in the Prayer (observed) at the place of residence.” As a matter of fact, this cannot be known except through tawqif (revelation). Thus, performing only two of the four rak`ahs by the traveler is not originally considered a kind of shortening (qasr). In fact, this is the original and complete ruling as far as the traveler is concerned. Also, completing the Prayer would not be deemed as rukhsah for a traveler, but rather an act of disobedience to the Sunnah.

Moreover, shortening the Prayer is `azimah (an established and confirmed ruling). Had the completion been the `azimah, the Prophet would not have persisted in abandoning it. It is known that `azimah is better than rukhsah, and the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to choose the best of deeds. He would abandon the better deeds once or twice only to teach his Ummah the legal concessions. He (peace and blessings be upon him) shortened his Prayer in Makkah and said to the Makkans, “Complete your Prayer.” If the completion of the Prayer had been permissible, he would not have performed only two rak`ahs.

Meeting Accident: Due to Not Giving Charity?

July 20, 2010 Leave a comment
Title Meeting Accident: Due to Not Giving Charity?
Question Dear Scholar, Assalamu alaykum I’ve read that Charity takes harm away from the charity giver. Tomorrow If a member of my family meets in an accident and die Is it a test from Allah for my family for not giving enough charity?
Date 10/5/2004
Mufti A Group of Islamic Researchers

Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear questioner, we would like to thank you for the great confidence you place in us, and we implore Allah Almighty to help us serve His cause and render our work for His Sake. May Allah reward you abundantly for your interest in knowing the teachings of your religion, Islam!

As for your question, there are many Qur’anic verses and hadiths exhorting Muslims to give out charity. However, it is not a necessity to believe that a person afflicted with an accident or any misfortune to be due to not giving out enough charity even if charity purifies property and takes harm away from the charity giver. Following are some Qur’anic verses and hadiths exhorting on giving out charity:

Almighty Allah says, “Take alms of their wealth, wherewith thou mayst purify them and mayst make them grow.” (At-Tawbah: 103)

The Almighty also says, “…and my mercy embraceth all things, therefore I shall ordain It for those who ward off (evil) and pay the poor due, and those who believe our revelations.” (Al-A`raf: 156)

Furthermore, At-Tabarani reported a hadith that reads: “He who pays the zakah due on his property, its (the property’s) evil has gone away.” In another hadith, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) says, “Perform prayers, pay zakah, perform Hajj and `Umrah, and be straight so that all your affairs may be straightened.”

In addition, Ibn Majah reported a hadith in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “O people! Turn to Allah in repentance before you die; do good deeds before you get preoccupied; and strengthen that which is between you and your Lord by remembering Him most often and giving in charity most often in secret and in public so that you may be given provision, victory and support.”

In another version, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said, “Immunize your property with zakah, cure your ills with charity, and confront the waves of distress with invocation.”

The above hadith indicates that the charity giver who sincerely fears Allah is contained in the care and mercy of Allah. This is inferred from the first verse we mentioned and from the verses in which Almighty Allah says, “…And whosoever keepeth his duty to Allah, Allah will appoint a way out for him, and will provide for him from (a quarter) whence he hath no expectation.” (At-Talaq, 2-3) Therefore, charity purifies property and takes harm away from the charity giver. However, it has nothing to do with unconditional Qadar (Devine predestination). The same applies to Du`a’ (supplication).

Kidney Transplantation for Money

July 19, 2010 Leave a comment
Title Kidney Transplantation for Money
Question Dear Scholar, Assalamu alaykum If one has to do a kidney transplant operation and if he cannot find a donor then is it possible to get one for money ? There are muslims as well as non muslims in our country who willingly give their kidney for money due to their financial difficulties What does Islam say about this ?
Date 9/26/2004
Mufti Group of Muftis

Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear questioner, we would like to thank you for the great confidence you place in us, and we implore Allah Almighty to help us serve His cause and render our work for His Sake.

Responding to the question, the eminent Muslim scholar, Sheikh `Abdel Khaliq Hasan Ash-Shareef, the renowned Da`iyah, states the following:

“Originally, organ donation should be done solely for Allah’s sake as man is not a possessor of his body organs. However, in case there is no way out before the person in need or an organ to save his life but to resort to buying the organ to save his life, then there is nothing wrong in resorting to that as necessity in this case knows no laws.”

Discussing the issue of organ donation in detail, we would like to cite for you the following fatwa issued by Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and an Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, in which he states the following:

“Organ donation is permitted in Islam if it is done within the permissible limits prescribed by the Shari`ah.

The following are the conditions scholars have stipulated for donation:

Conditions associated with a living donor:

1. He/she must be a person who is in full possession of his/her faculties so that he/she is able to make a sound decision by himself/herself;

2. He/she must be an adult and, preferably, at least twenty-one years old;

3. It should be done on his/her own free will without any external pressure exerted on him/ her;

4. The organ he/she is donating must not be a vital organ on which his/her survival or sound health is dependent upon;

5. No transplantation of sexual organs is allowed.

Conditions associated with deceased donors:

1. It must be done after having ascertained the free consent of the donor prior to his /her death. It can be through a will to that effect, or signing the donor card, etc.

2. In a case where organ donation consent was not given prior to a donor’s death, the consent may be granted by the deceased’s closest relatives who are in a position to make such decisions on his/her behalf.

3. It must be an organ or tissue that is medically determined to be able to save the life or maintain the quality of life of another human being.

4. The organ must be removed only from the deceased person after the death has been ascertained through reliable medical procedures.

5. Organs can also be harvested from the victims of traffic accidents if their identities are unknown, but it must be done only following the valid decree of a judge.”

The Cause of Psychological Disorders

July 18, 2010 Leave a comment
Title The Cause of Psychological Disorders
Question Dear Scholar, Assalamu alaykum Are Psychological disorders in adults such as depression, anxiety and so forth is a result of weak imaan?
Date 9/5/2004
Mufti A Group of Islamic Researchers

Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

Dear brother in Islam, we are pleased by receiving your question, for it reflects your conviction of the fact that Islam offers workable solutions to the world’s complicated problems. May Allah guide the perplexed people to the light of Islam!

As for your question, a Muslim is a human being who may be inflicted with different forms of psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, despair, or evil thoughts. This may be a result of weak faith, a trial from Allah, or due to the pressure of daily life or any other reason.

But a Muslim should never surrender to depression, despair, or evil thoughts, etc. A Muslim should resort to Allah and seek His help against these evils. At the same time, medical treatment should not be ignored.

Elaborating on how to overcome depression, we’d like to cite for you the following fatwa issued by Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, a senior lecturer and an Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, who states:

“It is important that those people suffering from psychological disorders to seek immediate medical help. Get in touch with your family doctor and he will refer you to a specialist in this field.

Islam teaches us never to despair of Allah’s mercy. So do not ever lose hope, but do what is necessary in order to take care of your health. This involves consulting doctors, obtaining treatment and taking medication. Since Allah has ordered us to take care of our health, it is our religious duty to seek medical attention in order to save ourselves from self-destruction. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Verily your body has rights; your soul has rights and your Lord has rights… so give each one his/her due.”

Depression is a very serious condition and unless treated correctly it could be fatal, so do not wait to obtain proper treatment: While doing so, you should also be consistent in resorting to spiritual healing. Here are a few things you may practice on a consistent basis:

1) Be diligent in performing your salah; Salah, when done consciously and with full awareness, will prove to be a true source of spiritual healing and it is the best way to obtain relief from stress.

2) Before retiring to bed every day, read surat Al-Fatihah and the last three surahs of the Qur’an and blow into your hands and wipe over your whole body, preferably three times. You may also repeat the same at other times of the day or night as you wish.

3) Try to read at least ten verses of the Qur’an every day.

4) Listen to the Qur’an as much as possible; try to play a recording of the Qur’an at all times.

5) Keep yourself busy doing something beneficial, for a mind that is not occupied with good things will most likely be occupied with idle matters; remember if you do not keep yourself busy with good works, Satan will make sure to keep you busy with his negative and destructive work.

6) Say the following supplications (du`a’s) while believing in their efficacy, and expecting cure and relief from Allah:

Allahumma rahmataka arju fala takilnee ila nafsee tarfata `ayn; wa aslih lee sha’nee kullahu, la ilaha illa anata (O Allah! I implore Your grace and mercy; so do not leave me to my own devices even for a single instant!)

La ilaha illa Allah al-`azeem al-haleem, la ilaha illa Allah rabbu al-`arshi al-`azeem, la ilaha illa Allahu rabbu al-ssamawati wa al-ardhi wa rabbu al-`arshi al-kareem (There is no god but Allah, the Great, the Clement; there is no god but Allah, Lord of the Mighty Throne; there is no god but Allah, Lord of the heavens and the earth, and Lord of the Mighty Throne.)

Allahumma innee `abduka, ibnu `abdik, ibn amatik, nasiyatee bi yadika, qadin fiyya hukmuka, `adlun fiyya qada’uka; as’aluka bi kull ismin huwa laka sammayta bihi nafsaka aw anzaltahu fee kitabika aw `allamtahu ahadan min khalqika aw ista`tharta bihi fee `ilmi al-ghaybi `indaka an taj`ala al-Qur’ana rabee`a qalbee wa noora basaree wa jila`a huznee wa dhahaba hammee (O Allah! I am Your servant; son of Your servant, son of Your maid-servant; my forelock is under Your firm grip; Your decree is firmly established in my case; Your rule is just in my case. I ask You, invoking every single name You possess, with which You have called Yourself, or You have revealed in Your scripture, or instructed any of Your creation or You have kept hidden in the realm of the unseen with You, to make the Qur’an the spring of my heart, the light of my eyes, and an alleviator of my grief and a dispeller of my worries!).”